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Proud Indian
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: Feb 2011
: Chandigarh
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Thumbs up Common Forms of Corruption

Bribery: the offering of money, services or other valuables to persuade someone to do something in return. Synonyms: kickbacks, baksheesh, payola, hush money, sweetener, protection money, boodle, and gratuity.

Embezzlement: the taking of money, property or other valuables by the person to whom it has been entrusted for personal benefit.

Fraud: the use of deceit, trickery or false pretences to induce someone to turn over money, property, or other valuables voluntarily. Synonyms: swindle, deceit, double-dealing, cheat, and bluff.

Extortion: the demanding or taking of money, property or other valuables through use of coercion and/or force. A typical example of extortion would be when armed police or military men exact money for passage through a roadblock. Synonyms include blackmail, bloodsucking and extraction.

Abuse of discretion: the abuse of office for private gain, but without external inducement or extortion. Patterns of such abuses are usually associated with bureaucracies in which broad individual discretion is created, few oversights or accountability structures are present, as well as those in which decision-making rules are so complex as to neutralise the effectiveness of such structures even if they exist.

Nepotism: a form of favouritism that involves family relationships. It decribes situations in which a person exploits his or her power and authority to procure jobs or other favours for relatives.

Improper political contributions: payments made in an attempt to unduly influence present or future activities by a party or its members when they are in office.

Adapted from UNODC Anti-Corruption Toolkit and the EU’s Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative Glossary
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